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MULTIPLE CMES ARE COMING: NOAA forecasters say there is a chance of G2-class geomagnetic storms on Oct. 4th when multiple CMEs might sideswipe Earth’s magnetic field. Most of the incoming CMEs were hurled into space by sunspot AR3110, which unleashed a series of strong flares (M5.9, M8.7, X1) over the weekend. During G2-class storms, naked-eye auroras can descend into the United States as low as New York and Idaho. Aurora alerts:SMS Text

A BIG DANGEROUS SUNSPOT: One of the biggest sunspots in years has just rotated over the sun’s northeastern limb. Introducing, AR3112:

  • Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is beginning, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth’s atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu’s Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining–a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

SUNSPOT SUNSETS: Solar Cycle 25 is changing the way sunsets look. It is adding some spots. “Active sunspot complex AR2993-94 was visible yesterday at sunset,” says Marek Nikodem, who sends this picture from Szubin, Poland: